acta physica slovaca

Acta Physica Slovaca 60, No.4, 393-495 (2010) (103 pages)


Yi Xie1,2 and Sergei Kopeikin2
    1Astronomy Department, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093, China
    2Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA

Full text: ::pdf :: (Received 03 June 2010, accepted 10 June 2010)

Abstract: We overview a set of post-Newtonian reference frames for a comprehensive study of the orbital dynamics and rotational motion of Moon and Earth by means of lunar laser ranging (LLR). We employ a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two post-Newtonian parameters, and , and utilize the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity. The primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are forming the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The secondary reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is locally-inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the EMB frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames ­ geocentric (GRF) and selenocentric (SRF) ­ have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the ICRF because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description. Each local frame can be aligned with the axes of ICRF after applying the matrix of the relativistic precession. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to fully decouple the relative motion of Moon with respect to Earth from the orbital motion of the Earth-Moon barycenter as well as to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, an observer on Earth, and a retro-reflector on Moon to directly measurable quantities such as the proper time and the round-trip laser-light distance. We solve the gravity field equations and find out the metric tensor and the scalar field in all frames which description includes the post-Newtonian multipole moments of the gravitational field of Earth and Moon. We also derive the post-Newtonian coordinate transformations between the frames and analyze the residual gauge freedom.

DOI: 10.2478/v10155-010-0004-0

PACS: 04.20.Gz, 04.80.-y, 95.55.Br, 96.15.Vx
Keywords: Relativity, Gravitation, Gravitomagnetism, Gauge invariance, Brans- Dicke theory, Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, Reference frames, Earth-Moon system, Lunar laser ranging
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