# acta physica slovaca

Acta Physica Slovaca 57, No.2, 177-406 (2007) (230 pages)

The finite-difference and finite-element modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion

P. Moczoa,b, J. Kristeka,b, M. Galisb, P. Pazaka, M. Balazovjecha
aFaculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University
Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 48 Bratislava, Slovakia
bGeophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences
Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 28 Bratislava, Slovakia

Full text: ::pdf :: (received 21 February 2007, accepted 28 February 2007)
Errata: ::pdf ::

Abstract: Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion is an irreplaceable tool in investigation of the Earth's structure, processes in the Earth, and particularly earthquake phenomena. Among various numerical methods, the finite-difference method is the dominant method in the modeling of earthquake motion. Moreover, it is becoming more important in the seismic exploration and structural modeling. At the same time we are convinced that the best time of the finite-difference method in seismology is in the future. This monograph provides tutorial and detailed introduction to the application of the finitedifference (FD), finite-element (FE), and hybrid FD-FE methods to the modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion. The text does not cover all topics and aspects of the methods. We focus on those to which we have contributed. We present alternative formulations of equation of motion for a smooth elastic continuum. We then develop alternative formulations for a canonical problem with a welded material interface and free surface. We continue with a model of an earthquake source. We complete the general theoretical introduction by a chapter on the constitutive laws for elastic and viscoelastic media, and brief review of strong formulations of the equation of motion. What follows is a block of chapters on the finite-difference and finite-element methods. We develop FD targets for the free surface and welded material interface. We then present various FD schemes for a smooth continuum, free surface, and welded interface. We focus on the staggered-grid and mainly optimally-accurate FD schemes. We also present alternative formulations of the FE method. We include the FD and FE implementations of the traction-at-split-nodes method for simulation of dynamic rupture propagation. The FD modeling is applied to the model of the deep sedimentary Grenoble basin, France. The FD and FE methods are combined in the hybrid FD-FE method. The hybrid method is then applied to two earthquake scenarios for the Grenoble basin. Except chapters 1, 3, 5, and 12, all chapters include new, previously unpublished material and results.

PACS: 02.50.+s, 05.60.+w, 72.15.-v
Keywords: Seismic wave propagation, Earthquake motion, Numerical modeling, Hybrid numerical modeling, Viscoelasticity, Earthquake source dynamics